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Community Youth Development and Youth Civic Engagement

American Youth Policy Forum. (2003). Shaping the future of American youth: Youth policy in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Author.

Barkman, S., & Machtmes, K. (2000). Evaluating the impact of youth development programs. User guide. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Baton, W. H., Watkins, M., & Jarjoua, R. (1998). Youth and communities: Toward comprehensive strategies for youth development. In P. Ewalt, E. Freeman, & D. Poole (Eds.), Community building: Renewal, well-being and shared responsibility. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Benson, P. L., & Pittman, K. J. (2001). Moving the youth development message: Turning a vague idea into a moral imperative. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. vii–xii). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Benson, P. L., & Saito, R. N. (2001). The scientific foundations of youth development. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. 135–154). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Blyth, D. (2000). Extension's roles in community youth development for the 21st Century. St. Paul, MN: Center for Youth Development, University of Minnesota Extension.

Carnegie Corporation of New York and Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. (2003). The civic missions of schools. New York: Author.

Chalk, R., & Phillips, D. A. (Eds.). (1996). Youth development and neighborhood influences: Challenges and opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Community Network for Youth Development. (2001). Youth development guide: Engaging young people in after-school programming. San Francisco: Author.

Connell, J., Gambone, M., & Smith, T. (n.d.). Youth development in community settings: Challenges to our field and our approach. Community Action for Youth Project.

Dudley, R., & Gitelson, A. (2002). Political literacy, civic education and civic engagement: A return to political socialization? Applied Development Science, 6(4), 175–182.

Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Fields, A. B. (n.d.). The youth challenge: Participating in democracy. New York: Carnegie Corporation.

Flanagan, C. A., & Faison, N. (2001). Youth civic development: Implications of research for social policy and programs. Ann Arbor, MI: Society for Research in Child Development.

Gibson, C. (2001). From inspiration to participation: A review of perspectives on youth civic engagement. New York: Grantmaker Forum on Community and National Service.

Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development. (2003). Lessons in leadership: How young people change their communities and themselves. An evaluation of the Youth Leadership for Development Initiative. Takoma Park, WA: Author.

Institute for Just Communities. (2001). Youth 2000. CYD Journal, 1(1).

Institute for Just Communities. (2002). CYD anthology 2002. Sudbury, MA: Author.

Irby, M., Ferber, T., & Pittman, K. (with Tolman, J., & Yohalem, N.). (2001). Youth action: Youth contributing to communities, communities supporting youth. Washington, DC: Forum for Youth Investment.

Kahne, J., Honig, M. I., & McLaughlin, M. W. (2002). The civic components of community youth development. In CYD anthology 2002. Sudbury, MA: Institute for Just Communities.

Kurtz, K., Rosenthal, A., & Zukin, C. (2003). Citizenship: A challenge for all generations. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.

Lopez, M. H. (2002). Civic engagement among minority youth. College Park, MD: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.

McDevitt, M., Kiousis, S., Xu, W., Losch, M., & Ripley, T. (2003). The civic bonding of school and family: How kids voting students enliven the domestic sphere. College Park, MD: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.

Michelsen, E., Zaff, J. F., & Hair, E. C. (2002). Civic engagement programs and youth development: A synthesis. Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Mincemoyer, C., & Perkins, D. F. (2001). Building your youth development toolkit: A community youth development orientation for Pennsylvania 4-H/Youth Programs. Journal of Extension, 39(4).

Pearson, S. S., & Voke, H. M. (2003). Building an effective citizenry: Lessons learned from initiatives in youth engagement. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.

Sherrod, L. R., Flanagan, C., & Youniss, J. (2002). Dimensions of citizenship and opportunities for youth development: The what, why, when, where, and who of citizenship development. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 264–272.

Skelton, N., Boyte, H. C., & Leonard, L. S. (2002). Youth civic engagement: Reflections on an emerging public idea. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Democracy and Citizenship.

Stein, J. (2000). Community youth development: New challenges for a new century. St. Paul: Center for Youth Development, University of Minnesota Extension.

Stepick, A., & Stepick, C. D. (2002). Becoming American, constructing ethnicity: Immigrant youth and civic engagement. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 246–257.

Stoneman, D. (2002). The role of youth programming in the development of civic engagement. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 221–226.

Torney-Purta, J. (2002). The school's role in developing civic engagement: A study of adolescents in twenty-eight countries. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 203–212.

Villarruel, F. A., Perkins, D. F., Borden, L. M., & Keith, J. G. (Eds.). (2003). Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Winter, N. (2003). Social capital, civic engagement and positive youth development outcomes. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates.

Wynn, J. (2000). The role of local intermediary organizations in the youth development field. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.

Youniss, J., & Yates, M. (1997). Community service and social responsibility in youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The National 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program Evaluation

First-Year National Evaluation Report

U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary. (2003). When schools stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers program, first year findings. Washington, DC: Author.

Responses to the First-Year National Evaluation Report

Bissell, J. S., Cross, C. T., Mapp, K, Reisner, E., Vandell, D. L., Warren, C., & Weissbourd, R. (2003, May 10). Statement released by members of the scientific advisory board for the 21st Century Community Learning Center evaluation. Document posted as attachment to message posted to Promising Practices in After School electronic mailing list, archived at Download the document directly at
(55KB Word file).

Boyle, P. (2003, March). After-school programs: Fed study, funding slash show results: anger. Youth Today, 12(3).

Dynarski, M. (2003, July 10). It feels fine once you get used to it: Lessons from the 21st Century national evaluation. Remarks presented at the Brookings Institution's Stakeholder Forum on After-School Programs, Washington, DC.

Dynarski, M. (2003, February 11). Response to the Afterschool Alliance on the findings of the 21st Century evaluation. Message posted to Promising Practices in After School electronic mailing list, archived at

Dynarski, M., & Moore, M. (2003, May 13). Response to May 7, 2003, letter from selected members of the technical working group for the 21st Century Community Learning Centers evaluation. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Hake, R. R. (2003, June 9). Mathematica's report on after-school learning programs. Message posted to AERA-D, ASSESS, EvalTalk, PhysLrnR, PPAS, and Math-Learn electronic mailing lists, archived at

Mahoney, J. L. (2003, Spring). A critical commentary on the national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers. 21 Community News, 1, 6.

Mahoney, J. L., & Zigler, E. F. (2003, July 3). The national evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers: A critical analysis of first-year findings. New Haven, CT: Department of Psychology, Yale University.

Mathematica Policy Research. (2003, February 4). Largest federal after-school program shows mixed results nationwide. Princeton, NJ: Author.

Mathews, J. (2003, April 22). Academic research a study in politics. The Washington Post, p. A7.

Paige, R. (2003, April 1). We must spend our education dollars wisely. The Washington Post, p. A14.

Pittman, K. (2003, March). Politics + science = science fiction. Washington, DC: The Forum for Youth Investment.

Puma, M. (2003, June 11). After-school study's “unfounded” review [Letter to the editor]. Education Week, 22(40), 28.

Riley, R. (2003, April 8). School children left behind. The Washington Post, p. A32.

The After-School Corporation. (2003, June). A comparison of Mathematica’s national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers and Policy Studies Associates’ evaluation of the TASC after-school program. New York: Author. (100KB Acrobat file)
Comparison table narrative
(90KB Acrobat file)

U.S. Department of Education. (2003, February 3). Evaluation shows improvements needed in after school program. Washington, DC: Author.

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